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Table 1 Cooper rank for utilities (reproduced from Cooper et al. [ 45 ])

From: Health state utility values for diabetic retinopathy: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

Rank Data components
1 Direct utility assessment for the specific study from a sample either:
  (a) of the general population
  (b) with knowledge of the disease(s) of interest
  (c) of patients with the disease(s) of interest
  Indirect utility assessment from specific study from patientsample with disease(s) of interest, using a tool validated for thepatient population
2 Indirect utility assessment from a patient sample with disease(s) of interest, using tool not validated for the patient population
3 Direct utility assessment from a previous study from a sample either
  (a) of the general population
  (b) with knowledge of the disease(s) of interest
  (c) of patients with the disease(s) of interest
  Indirect utility assessment from previous study from patientsample with disease(s) of interest, using a tool validated for thepatient population
4 Unsourced utility data from previous study - method of elicitation unknown
5 Patient preference values obtained from a visual analog scale
6 Delphi panels, expert opinion