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Table 3 Comparison of all lupus nephritis treatments for a composite of renal relapse or renal flare

From: Comparative effectiveness of immunosuppressive drugs and corticosteroids for lupus nephritis: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

Treatment Reference Odds ratio (95 % CrI) Relative risk (95 % CrI) Risk difference % (95 % Crl)
AZA PRED 0.33 (0.08, 1.23) 0.50 (0.17, 1.12) −0.24 (−0.47, 0.05)
MMF   0.17 (0.04, 0.67) 0.29 (0.09, 0.78) 0.34 (0.53,0.09)
CYC   0.18 (0.05, 0.58) 0.31 (0.11, 0.71) 0.33 (0.51,0.12)
CSA   0.24 (0.03, 1.60) 0.39 (0.07, 1.26) −0.29 (−0.52, 0.11)
CYC + AZA   0.32 (0.05, 1.67) 0.48 (0.10, 1.29) −0.25 (−0.50, 0.12)
MMF-AZA   0.41 (0.03, 5.46) 0.58 (0.07, 1.83) −0.20 (−0.51, 0.36)
MMF AZA 0.51 (0.32, 0.87) 0.59 (0.38, 0.90) 0.10 (0.20,0.02)
CYC   0.55 (0.24, 1.26) 0.62 (0.32, 1.21) −0.09 (−0.26 0.03)
CSA   0.74 (0.18, 2.95) 0.80 (0.23, 2.01) −0.04 (−0.23, 0.23)
CYC + AZA   0.95 (0.27, 3.09) 0.96 (0.34, 2.11) −0.01 (−0.19, 0.24)
MMF-AZA   1.23 (0.14, 12.15) 1.16 (0.19, 3.76) 0.04 (−0.25, 0.53)
CYC MMF 1.06 (0.44, 2.58) 1.05 (0.51, 2.29) 0.01 (−0.13, 0.12)
CSA   1.43 (0.32, 6.17) 1.33 (0.36, 3.81) 0.04 (−0.12, 0.35)
CYC + AZA   1.84 (0.51, 6.00) 1.62 (0.56, 3.85) 0.08 (−0.07, 0.35)
MMF-AZA   2.39 (0.27, 23.30) 1.94 (0.31, 6.94) 0.13 (−0.12, 0.63)
CSA CYC 1.35 (0.27, 6.52) 1.27 (0.31, 3.86) 0.04 (−0.14, 0.37)
CYC + AZA   1.72 (0.44, 6.37) 1.53 (0.49, 3.83) 0.08 (−0.09, 0.3)
MMF-AZA   2.24 (0.24, 23.15) 1.85 (0.28, 6.46) 0.13 (−0.13, 0.63)
CYC + AZA CSA 1.27 (0.20, 8.09) 1.20 (0.30, 5.35) 0.03 (−0.29, 0.35)
MMF-AZA   1.67 (0.13, 25.89) 1.43 (0.19, 8.68) 0.08 (−0.31, 0.62)
MMF-AZA CYC + AZA 1.30 (0.22, 9.13) 1.20 (0.28, 3.68) 0.04 (−0.01, 0.46)
Random-effects model Residual deviance 32.06 vs. 28 data points   
  Deviance information criteria 146.869   
Fixed-effects model Residual deviance 34.31 vs. 28 data points   
  Deviance information criteria 147.018   
  1. Based on 13 RCTs with 1108 patients: 11 two-arm trials and two three-arm trials
  2. Significant odds ratios are in italics
  3. For absolute rates for events used for calculation of risk difference, please see Appendix 6
  4. OR odds ratio, RR relative risk, RD risk difference, CrI credible interval, CYC cyclophosphamide, MMF mycophenolate mofetil, CSA cyclosporine, TAC tacrolimus, LEF leflunomide, PRED prednisone, prednisolone or methylprednisolone, AZA azathioprine, RTX rituximab
  5. CYC + AZA CYC with AZA, MMF-AZA MMF followed by AZA
  6. Merged doses for PRED and CYC and comparing only between treatments. We did not lose any study, but it is a limitation of this analysis