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Table 6 Presentation of the risk of bias of included studies

From: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among HIV-positive and HIV-negative populations in sub-Saharan Africa—a systematic review and meta-analysis

S/N Author (s) and year of publication Was the study’s target population a close representation of the national population in relation to relevant variables, e.g. age, sex, occupation? Was the sampling frame a true or close representation of the target population? Was some form of random selection used to select the sample, OR, was a census undertaken? Was the likelihood of non-response bias minimal? Were data collected directly from the subjects (as opposed to a proxy)? Was an acceptable case definition used in the study? Was the study instrument that measured the parameter of interest (e.g. prevalence of low back pain) shown to have reliability and validity (if necessary)? Was the same mode of data collection used for all subjects? Were the numerator(s) and denominator r(s) for the parameter of interest appropriate Summary on the overall risk of study bias
1 Adébayo et al., 2015 [44] No (high risk) No (high risk) No (high risk) No (high risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Moderate risk (4–6)
2 Amusa et al., 2016 [33] Yes (low risk) No (high risk) No (high risk) No (high risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Moderate risk (4–6)
3 Ayodele et al., 2012 [32] Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) No (high risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Low risk (0–3)
4 Berhane et al., 2012 [34] Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) No (high risk) No (high risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Low risk (0–3)
5 Fourie et al., 2010 [35] Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Low risk (0–3)
6 Guehi et al., 2016 [30] Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Low risk (0–3)
7 Guira et al., 2016 [31] No (high risk) No (high risk) No (high risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Low risk (0–3)
8 Hirigo et al., 2016 [36] No (high risk) No (high risk) No (high risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Low risk (0–3)
9 Mashinya et al., 2015 [37] No (high risk) Yes (low risk) No (high risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Low risk (0–3)
10 Mbunkah et al., 2014 [38] No (high risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Low risk (0–3)
11 Muhammad et al., 2013 [45] Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Low risk (0–3)
12 Muyanja et al., 2016 [39] No (high risk) No (high risk) No (high risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Low risk (0–3)
13 Ngatchou et al., 2013 [40] Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) No (high risk) No (high risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Low risk (0–3)
14 Obirikorang et al. 2016 [41] Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) No (high risk) No (high risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Low risk (0–3)
15 Sawadogo et al., 2005 [43] Yes (Low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) No (high risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Low risk (0–3)
16 Sobieszczyk et al., 2016 [29] Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) No (high risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Low risk (0–3)
17 Tesfaye et al., 2014 [42] No (high risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) No (high risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Low risk (0–3)
18 Zannou et al., 2009 [28] No (high risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Yes (low risk) Low risk (0–3)